Brunei(汶萊)misinanot

Wenlay(文萊), Rihadayay a Wenlay Kitakit 汶萊和平之國misinanot

Takaray a sowal(概略)misinanot

O tada ngangan i,o Rihadayay a Wenlay Kitakit(Malaysiya a sowal:

 
o Hata no Wenlay (Flag of Brunei)

Negara Brunei Darussalam;Kuwaping a sowal:汶萊和平之國,o roma a pipangangan i, o汶萊達魯薩蘭國[1],kalopitahidang o 汶萊ano ca文萊 hananay a mitahidang.

Itiraay i sak’amis no Polo-Karopaw(Malaysiya a swoal:Borneo; Inni a sowal: Kalimantan-Kanatal,加里曼丹島; Kuwaping a sowal:婆羅洲),o sakatolo ko katata’ang i hekal,o sakakaay ko katata’ang i Aciya, o kakahad no pala i,ira ko 743,330㎢, o Wenlay kitakit ono katimolay no sakawali no Aciya a kitakit.

 
Kaitiraan no Wenlay (Location Brunei ASEAN)

I 1984 miheca saka 1 folad saka 1 romi’ad miliyas to Ikiris a misiiked to niyah-pikowan, do’edoedo sa i saka7 romi’ad toya folad mikapot to「Katimolay no Sakawali no Aciya a Kitakit a Lekatep」(Ikiris a sowal:Association of Southeast Asian Nations; Decdec:ASEAN; Kuwaing a sowal:東盟).

Tada fangcal ko kicai katayalan no Wenlay kitakit, o kasolin-simal ato palapalan-kaso patahtahay ko kaadihay, o nipasadakan a nipaliwal a Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit(Gross Domestic Product: GDP) mihaop to 67%, o sakarihaday a sapadang no kitakit tadafancal, o masowalay i hekal ko caka pasata ko tamdaw nona kitakit.  

O Silikawang(Bandar Seri Begawan;斯里巴卡旺) ko Siyoto.Katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日).Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakatosa 23 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i ci Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah(哈吉哈山納·包奇亞·穆伊扎丁·瓦達烏拉), patirengan a romi’ad i 1967 a miheca saka 10 folad saka 5 a romi’ad.

Rikisi(歷史)misinanot

To’asan miheca(早期)misinanot

I saka 8 sici iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini, itiya i saka 14 sici, o Wenlay-Sawara’an Kitakit(1368miheca-1888miheca) miliyas to pikowan no Cawwa(Inni a sowal:Jawa; Kuwaping a sowal:爪哇), tahira to i saka 14-16 sici cemahad malasakakaay ko kaci’icel itini ton apala, o mikowanan a pala i, mahaop ko katimol no Filipin, Salawyie ato Sapa, o Yoropa to a tamdaw ko mitekopay tona Sawara’an-Kitakit.

Milalang ko Ikiris(英國干涉)misinanot

 
The signing of the Treaty of Labuan on 18 December 1846

I 1846 miheca, cifangafang ko Wenlay to mamirocok to Kamaro’an no Sotan, tado sa ko sofitay no Ikiris i Wenlay.[2] Sanoyanan sato a mifafo’ot to maamaan a demak no Wenlay ko Ikiris.

1880 miheca satapang maserer ko ’icel no Wenlay. Ora sato Sotan pecih han to ningra ko sera(aniniay a Salawyie)pafeli ko mipadangay cingranan a miwarayay to fangafang a Ikiris tamdaw ci Cames Poluko Ciesi(Sir James Brooke;占士·布魯克爵士), haien cingra papipatiren to Salawyie Hontian kitakit(Malaysiya a sowal:Kerajaan Sarawak; Ikiris a sowal:Kingdom of Sarawak; Kuwaping a sowal:砂拉越王國). Na ira to kona Hontian kitakit no Ikiris, ci Cames Poluko ato wawa no salakaka ningra sa adihay sato ko micaliwan ato ni’asfasan a sera. O Salawyie(Sarawak) a mikowanay adihay koni pecihan a sera pafeli ci Cames Polukoan.

Mi’eco ko Dipon (日本佔領)misinanot

I 1941 miheca saka 12 folad saka 16 romi’ad, naikoran no Dipon a mitefad to salifong i Cinco-Minato( Pearl Harbor) to 8 a romi’ad, micowat ko Dipon to Wenlay. Cecay ’ofad ko Kawakuci-Kumi(川口支隊) sofitay no Dipon nani Cinlanwan-Sofitay Minato no Yienan(越南金蘭灣軍港), macakat i Malayi(Malaya a sowal:Kuala Belait;Kuwaping a sowal:馬來奕)no Wenlay. Tolo a romi’ad ko kalaloodan haemin han to no Dipon a mi’eco ko Wenlay, ’edengan o itiraay i

 
Pawli-Payso (Malaya-Japanese Occupation-10 Dollars ND ,1944)

(Malysiya a sowal:Kuching ; Kuwaoin a sowal:古晉) no Salawyie ko sofitay no Nipatatekoan-Kitakit( Ikiris a sowal:Allies of World War II ;Rosiya a sowal:Антигитлеровская коалиция; Kuwaping a sowal:同盟國), o saka 15 Pancepo-kasarekad sofitay no Ikiris.[3]

Yo maro’ to ko sofitay no Dipon tangsolsol sa a matatilid to kakaketonan-tilid ato Honti no Wenlay ci Sotan Ahamototancutin to pihai to pikowan no Dipon to polong no Wenlay. Oya sato itiraay i Wenlay a Ikiris a tamdaw mapalit no Dipon a maemin i Kucin Patoling-Pipalitan.

Yo pikowanan no Dipon a mihecahecaan, pasiiked han no Dipon ko kapah no Wenlay patayra i Dipon a patitilid, itini i Wenlay satapang a pasifana’ to sowal no Dipon, o malatapangay no sifo caay ka ca ka pinanam to sowal no Dipon.

Oya itiyaay ho a payso toya Pawli-Payso hananay i, mafalic to Malaya ato Poloco sofitayan-payso.  

I Ikor no Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal(第二次世界大戰後)misinanot

Yo malaheci sato ko Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal, mapatireng ko Sakowan no Sofitay no Ikiris, o tapang no Awco ato komuin no matayalay itini tona sakowan.[4] 1946  miheca sala7 folad saka 6 romi’ad patikolen no Sakowan no Sofitay ko sapikowan a ’icel i Wenlay, toya miheca paliyad heca ko Wenla-Pikaikian no kitakit.[5] Oya sato Sakowan no Sofitay sacecay sato to pipalowad to mapelengay a kicai no Wenlay, mipadeng toya niilohan no sofitay no Dipon a Siliya-Kasolin a omah.[6]

1962 miheca saka 12 folad saka 8~17 romi’ad, o cikiharay ato Wenlay-Finawlan Centang(Malaysiya a sowal:Parti Rakyat Brunei, decdec:PRB; Kuwaping a sowal:汶萊人民黨) a Ka’amisay-Kalimantan Sofitay no Finawlan sapifelihaw to Wenlay sifo,nika caay ka laheci.

1971 miheca, ’afasen a patatikol nani Ikiris ko Niyah-Pikowan, 1984 miheca saka 1 folad saka 1 romi’ad malaheci to Misiiked, nikawrira, sanoyanan sanay maro’ i Tata'akay-Ikiris a Lekatep(Commonwealth of Nations;大英國協)

kaitiraan(地理位置)misinanot

Itiraay i Poloco kona kitakit,ma’emin ko mihecaan o fa’edetay mado’etay ko kakarayan. O ’emin no kitakit a pala

 
Yienulong-Kayakay milacalay to riyar(Temburong Bridge construction project Feb 2019 (17))

no Sarawyie, o kawali ato ka’etip a tosa a pecih. Itiya ho milacal tona tosa a pecih i,caay ka capitaelif i Lipang-Syien(Malaysiya a sowal:Limbang; Kuwaping a sowal:林夢縣), yo malaheci to i 2020 miheca ko Yienulong-Kayakay(Malaysiya a sowal:Jambatan Sultan Haji Omar Ali Saifuddien; Kuwaping a sowal:蘇丹哈芝奧瑪阿里賽夫汀跨海大橋) tedac sanay to ko kalalacal no Kawali ato Ka’etip,ona kayakay 30 km ko kato'edaw.

Itini i 4 30 N, 114 40 E, noAsiya ko Brunei.Polong no sekalay i 5,765 sq km saka 173 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 5,265 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 500 sq km ,polong i 436,620 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地)Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 2.5%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 71.80%, malo no roma to a sera 25.70%.

Sieci (政治)misinanot

O faco no sieci no Wenlay i,o midotocan nani 14 sici oyanan to a tahanini ko Sotan-Hotian sieci faco, o Sotan hananay i,

 
Mohanmot saka 2 (Gentile Bellini )

o mikomoday to sifo ato kitakit, o tapang no sofitay. Ano ma’eco’ecoay no Ikiris to pinapina a mihecaan mala Nipa’adingan-Sakowan no Ikiris, nikawrira, cowa ka lasawad ko pikowan no Sotan tona kitakit. O faco no sieci no Wenlay i,nani tiraay i no faco no sieci no Ikiris a minanam, makalitoloay ko ’icel no sakowan to Tayal, Misanga’ to Rikec ato Misawkit, anini sato i,teked hananay to no Sotan ko pisanga’ to rikec.

Yo misanga’ to Tatapangan-Rikec no kitakit i 1959 miheca, o citodongay to mamisanga’ to rikec no kitakit o「Majlis Masyuarat Negeri」hananay, o misinkiwan ko mamalakiing. Nikawrira, ikor to no 1962 miheca, caacaay sanay to kapisinkiw. Nawhani, itiya ho milalang ko sifo to Wenlay-Finawlan Centang(Parti Rakyat Brunei, decdec:PRB) milekal to kacalohan-sowal, palopisaken a palasawad ko Misanga’ay to Rikec a Pikaikian. Tahira to i 1970 miheca o polong no kiing no Misanga’ay to Rikec a Pikaikian saheto sato o mitoro’an no Sotan nga’ manga’ay malakiing.

O pi’arawan to hademak no kitakit o Sawara’an-Faco no Malay-Islam, o paro nona faco i,sahetoay o Sowal no Malaya, Punka ato Pinangan, Islam ono kitakit a pitooran,mipatenak to rikec no Islam ato harateng, ’Icel no Honti ko sakakaay, mapatatekoay ko sieci ato pitooran, tatiihay a mifelih to ninian.[7]

Sotan no Wenlay(汶萊蘇丹)misinanot

 
Aniniay Sotan Hasan Pociya(Sultan of Brunei Hassanal Bolkiah)

Do’edo’en ko Tatapangan-Rikec no kitakit tora kinpo hananay i, o Sotan no Wenlay o sawara’an no kitakit, sawara’an no pitooran, mitatoyay to Tayal no Sifo, Misanga’ to Rikec ato Misawkit a ’icel no sakowan.[8] O aniniay a sotan o saka 29 rekad,ci Hasana Pociya(Malasya a sowal:Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu’izzaddin Waddaulah; Kuwaping a sowal:蘇丹哈吉哈山納·包奇亞·穆伊扎丁·瓦達烏拉).

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)misinanot

O kasasilsil no sakowan no Wenlay i,o syien (Malay a sowal:Daerah; Kuwaping a sowal:縣) ko ikakaay. Ira ko Mola-Sakowan (Malay a sowal:Daerah Brunei Muara;Kuwaping a sowal:摩拉縣), ira ko Malayi-Sakowan (Malay a sowal:Daerah Belait;Kuwaping a sowal:馬來奕縣),ira ko Tongto-Sakowan (Malay a sowal:Daerah Tutong; Kuwaping a sowal:都東縣),ira ho ko Yienwlong-Sakowan (Malay a sowal:Daerah Temburong; Kuwaping a sowal:淡武隆縣).Pasilsil han i la’eno.

Kasasilsil no sakowan:

# ’Amis Wenlay Kuwaping Dadahad/㎢ Tamdaw(2016)
1 Malayi-Sakowan Daerah Belait 馬來奕縣 570 292,705
2 Mola-Sakowan Daerah Muara 摩拉縣 2,727 69,992
3 Tongto-Sakowan Daerah Tutong 都東縣 1,166 49,438
4 Yienwlong-Sakowan Daerah Temburong 淡武隆縣 1,306 10,543

Kicai(經濟)misinanot

O kasolin-simal ato kaso no pala ko sakakaay a dafong nona kitakit,ona kasolin ato kaso a ’etan to cecay a mihecaan no Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc no laloma'an no kitakit(Gross Domestic Product;GDP) mahaop ko 90%.

 
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque with the ceremonial ship

Tatoor sanaay ato Intonisiya(Inni)ko nipasadakan ato loflof a kasolin ato kaso no pala itini i Katimolay no Saka’etip no Aciya, o sakatosa ko rayray. O cecay no sakakaay ko kacipayso itini i hekal, matatoktokay ko kacipayso ato Sinkapol itini i Katimolay no Saka’etip no Aciya, nikawrira, o Mamala-Cemahaday Kitakit(developing country) ho a kitakit sanay ko pinengneng no kalotamdaw.

I 2015 miheca, o Lalenan- 'Etan no Kalotamdaw (per capita disposable income ,GNI) ira ko 30,932 Amirika-Payso, cowa ka pasata ko kalotamdaw itini tona kitakit.Nikawrira, i 2020 miheca o Lalenan- 'Etan no Kalotamdaw maserer 26,089 Amirika-Payso.

Wenlay-Tosi Kaisiya(Brunei Investment Company) ira ko 9 a Pilafinan no Lafang itira i Amirika, Ikiris,Fransu ato Italy, oya tata’angay ko kacingangan i hekal a Pifoli-Hotilu i Amirika, Lonton-Torcisto(The Dorchester) ato Paris-Yatina Hotilu(Plaza Athenee).

Pitooran (宗教)misinanot

O polong a tamdaw no Wenlay mahaop ko 67% o mitooray to Ialam a Muslin, o Sonni-Rekad no Islam pitooran ko

 
(Muslin lipay i Sauti Arapiya)Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. Mecca, Saudi Arabia

,[9] nikawrira, oroma a pitooran iraay to i Wenlay. Mahaop ko 13% o mitooray to Fo-Ciyaw(mipaypayay), 10% o misakristaay.[10] o roma a pitooran’edeng 10%. Talacowaan o Islam-Pitooran kono kitakit a pitooran, oroma a pitooran mapa’adingay no rikec ko paiteked to pitooran. Mihaiay ko sifo to cowa kona Islam a lisin, matiya o Kurismas, nikawrira, cowa ka patahtah to salongoc, itini i no kalotamdaw a mipatirengan a pitilidan tatiihay a pasifana’ to roma a pitooran, ono caayay kono Islam a sapasifana’ malalangay.[11]

Itiniay i Wenlay a rikec no Islam ono Sonni-Rekad Safii-Rikec a kasarekarekad.[12] Ona Safii-Kasarekarekad i,o pido’edo’an a misanga’ to rikec no kitakit.

O misakristoay a salikaka ira ko7556 tamdaw[13] o roma a pisa’osi i ira ko 38000 ko tamdaw,[14] toloay ko kamaro’an no Sikyo no Tinsikiw: itira i Slipaciyawan-si, Pailai ato Siliya, alacecay ko sinpo.  

Tamdaw ato sowal(人口與語言)misinanot

O polong a tamdaw no Wenlay ira ko 41’ofad, ilaloma’ nonini i,ira ko tosa no kalitolo a tamdaw o Malay-Tamdaw, Yuencumin ira ko 6% tamdaw, o sa’alomanay a mamangay finacadan i,o Conko a tamdaw, mahaop ko 15% i polong no kitakit a tamdaw, o Fo-Ciyaw ko pitooran, ira ko papinapina a tamdaw to mitooray to Muslin.12% o roma a finacadan, mahaop ko Into a tamdaw.

No sifoan a sowal i,o Malay-Sowal. O itiniay a tamdaw o Ikiris ato Minan a sowal kalosowal to romi’ami’ad. O nani Fucien ato Kuwntong ko ’alomanay, orasaka, o no wina-sowal cowa ko lalekoan a Kuwaping a sowal, o cilamlamay to Minan ato Ngayngay a sowal.

O tilid i,o Roma-tilid ko sapitilid to Malay a tilid. Oya no to’asan a Cawi-Tilid(Malay a sowal:Jawi; Cawi a tilid:جاوي‎; Kuwaping a sowal:爪夷文), malecad ira ko ’icel malosifoan tilid, cowa to hakowa ko kitakit to kalasowalan ho ko Cawi a tilid.

Tahapinangan a Tilid (參考文獻)misinanot

[1] O sowal no Malysiya to「Negara」o kitakit sananay, ora to「Darussalam」o 「rihadayay a kitakit」sanay ko imi, mi paca’emot to tamdaw aka ka toka a mipatireng to rihaday ato kahinaker.

[2] History for Brunei Darussalam 2009,第52頁.

[3] 〈Brunei under the Japanese occupation〉,Rozan Yunos,〈Brunei Times〉,Bandar Seri Begawan,2008年9月29日。

[4] History for Brunei Darussalam 2009,第79頁.

[5] History for Brunei Darussalam 2009,第80頁.

[6] History for Brunei Darussalam 2009,第80頁.

[7] 文莱国家概况. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2019-01 [2019-05-14].

[8] 文莱国家概况. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2019-01 [2019-05-14].

[9] Brunei. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. [8 May 2011]. (原始內容存檔於2015-07-21)

[10] Brunei. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. [8 May 2011]. (原始內容存檔於2015-07-21).

[11] Brunei. The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. [8 May 2011]. (原始內容存檔於2015-07-21).

[12] Brunei. emory.edu. Emory. [11 May 2011]. (原始內容存檔於2014-01-15).

[13] Lien web|url=http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127265.htm%7Ctitre=Brunei%7Cid=%7Csérie=%7Cauteur=Template:Lien|lien auteur=|coauteurs=|date=26 octobre 2009|année=|mois=|site=|éditeur=Département d'État des États-Unis|isbn=|page=|citation=|en ligne le=|consulté le=Template:1er septembre 2010

[14] Lien web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bx.html%7Ctitre=Brunei%7Cid=%7Csérie=%7Cauteur=The[永久失效連結] World Factbook|lien auteur=|coauteurs=|date=19 aout 2010|année=|mois=|site=|éditeur=CIA|isbn=|page=|citation=|en ligne le=|consulté le=Template:1er septembre 2010

Pikafitan i Papotal(外部連接)misinanot