Congo, democratic republic of the

(masafaeloh to misiyor nani Congo, domocratic republic of the)

République démocratique du Congo

Kongko Finawlan kapolongan kitakit

Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Takaralay sowal (概要)misinanot

Kongko Finawlan kapolongan kitakit (剛果民主共和國; Fransu a sowal: République démocratique du Congo,decdecan:RDC ; Iliris a sowal : Democratic Republic of Congko), o itiraay i sasifo’an no Afrika a kitakit, Kongko-Kinshasa hananay mitahidang, nawhani iraay ko miriniay ko ngangan a kitakit o Kongko kapolongan kitakit (剛果共和國). O polong a sera nona kitakit ira ko 234.5 km² o sakatosa ko kakahad no sera i Afrika,sakacecay safaw i polong no kitakit, itini i hekal o sakaay ko ka ‘aloman no tamdaw to somowal to Frasu a sowal, o polong a tamdaw nona kitakit o saka 15 ko adihay itini i hekal, sakasepat i Afrika. O mikapotay i Linhoko, Lekatep no Afrika ato Sakatimol no Kawaliay Afrika a Matatekoay a Lekatep. I’ayaw no Kongko Finawlan kapolongan kitakit i, o Konko Naifaloco’ Kitakit ato Malamikotoday no Pilisu a Kitakit, i 1960 miheca saka 6 folad saka 30 romi’ad mapatireng ko Misaiieday Kitakit. Na mapatireng kona kitakit malecad ato ifiyaway a nano Malamikotoday no Fransu a Kitakit ko ngang o Konko Kapolongan Kitakit, mitahidang to ko roma a kitakit to nini i, paciping hananay to ngangan no syoto ta mafa’a' to kasasiroma nona tosa a kitakit, i 1964 muheca saka 8 folad saka 1 romi’ad falic han to a pangangan to Kongko Finawlan Kapolongan Kitakit. I 1966 mihecaan o tatapangan a syoto Lipow Si falicen a pangangan to Cinsasa, o Konko (Cin) hananay to a mitahidang, i 1971 miheca saka 10 folad saka 27 romi’ad, oya congtong itiya ci Monpoto Sasa Sayko (蒙博托·塞塞·塞科; Fransu a sowal:Mobutu Sésé Seko) mipalasawad to pikowan no Fransu falicen pangangan ko kitakit to Sair (Fransu a sowal:Zaïre), to ikor mapalolo tono aniniay a ngangan no kitakit taha nini. I 1998 miheca satapng ko sakakinatos a lalood no Konko, matiya to o maronicay kona kitakit awa ko masongila’ay a sera, nawhani, marapotay ko 9 a kitakit no Afrika ato 20 a Cikowangay a Saopo, orasaka, pangangan han to “Hekalay Lalood no Afrika”, I 2003 miheca ano matatilitiliday to Sakarihaday a Kakaketonan, caay ka lasawad ko fodfod tona kitakit, nani 1998 miheca satapang kona lalood ira to ko 540 ofad ko mapatayay a tamdaw, ilaloma’ nona mapatayay i sahetoay o korira, mapiyas, fala’ a adada ato cahiw ko sakapatay.

 
Democratic Republic of the Congo on the globe (Africa centered)

Rikisi(歷史)misinanot

I’ayaw no 8 ofad miheca iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini ton a pala. O sa’ayaway rikisi nona kitakit o Panto Tamdaw ko safinawlan sanay a maforaw a tayni, ona finawlan i, i’ayaw ni Yies to 2000 tahira i 500 mihecaan nani sa’etip no saka’amisan a maforaw tayni tona masadangahay a pala. O panto a tamdaw mihatatanam to pisaomahan ato piraoy to marad a taneng nani Sa’etipay Afrika, o Panto a sowal ko sakasasowal.

Ona kaforaw no tamtamdaw micomahad to piraoy to dafong nani fokeloh mafalic tayra i no maradan a piraoy. Itiya ho o ikatimolay ato isa’etipay a tamdaw sahetoay o mi’adopay mialaay tono palapalaan a dafong ko saka‘orip, haoto awaay ko marad a sakatayal, orasaka, rahoday a maceror no Panto a tamdaw, sa’aloman sato ko tamdaw. O mipaliwal a dafong i, o cinah, marad ato fodawan.

Ona Panto a tamdaw mipatirengay to Hontian Kitakit itini ton a pala i pileponan no saka13 sici i picomodan to 14 sici, o nikowanan a pala mahaop ko Ankora, Kapon ato Kongko. I saka 15 sici tayni to ko Yoropa a tamdaw mali’aca to kohetinagay tamdaw no Afrika.

I 1482 miheca o mikalicay to tamina a tamdaw no Portokaro ci Tiyako paka’araw to Kongko ’Alo, patireng han ninra ko otoc i cepo’ tahapinangan, nanoya 300 mihecaan ta masongila’ ko kacaceflis ato Kongko. Ira ko patenakay to sowal no Pa’oripay Kawas, ira ko patirengay to kali’acaan i ngata no Tasiyang Riyar,to sapikalali’acaaw to koli ato roma a dafong, awaay ko tahakemoday no Kongko.

 
Anefo 910-9740 De Congolese2

O pisatapangan no Kongko a malilafang ato roma a finacadan itiraay I 1874miheca tahira i 1877 miheca, tona mihecahecaan o mihahinamay to dafong a Ikiris tamdaw ci Tafit Liwinston (大衛·李文斯頓; Ikiris a sowal:David Livingstone), taha kemod no Kongko ko picomod ningra.

I 1876 miheca, o honti no Pilisi ci Liawpito sakatosa (利奧波德二世; Fransu a sowal: Léopold Louis Philippe Marie Victor; Olanta a sowal:Leopold Lodewijk Filips Maria Victor) milomaoc to sapipacomahad to Afirka a kalokitakit a kayki, mahemek to tayal ni Stanli i Afrika, micoker cingranan patatikol tayra i Afrika. Orasato, 5 miheca ko kaitiraan ni Stanli i Kongko,mapatirng ningra ko 22 a kalali’acaan, i tatapang no Lopana ’Alo parakaten ningra ko tamina,ingata no Stanli Cascas masanga’ ko lalan no cinamalay,mapatireng ko hano honti no Pilisi a “Malamikotoday no Pilisi a Konko”.

I 1885 miheca mapatireng ko Kongko Naifaloco’ay Kitakit (剛果獨立國; Frans a sowal:État indépendant du Congo; Olanta a sowal:Kongo-Vrijstaat)hananay,o mikowanan no micowatay sakowan, matiya o cecay a kosi no kalotamdaw, o mikomoday i o Honti, edengan kona honti ko mitatoyay tona kosi, cowa ka patolas a miala to wadis no co. Sapisanga’ to soka a ‘adeteng ato tadamaanay a fokeloh. ‘arw han ko ‘orip itiniay tamdaw malapakoyoc, to ikor to i, palasawad han to kona kosi o sifo tono Pilisi ko mikowanay.

I 1908 miheca, ira ko pakayniay tona kosi, malalang tono icowacowaay a kitakit, o sifo no Pilisi ko mirocokay a mikowan tahira i 1960 miheca.Malepon ko Sakatosa Lalood no Hekal, talipa’elay to ko faloco’ no itiniay a tamdaw, mangalay miliyas to Pilisi mipatireng to Misiikeday Kitakit,yo mapatireng to kona kitakit,oya itiniay a sofitay no Yoropa ira ko10 ofad milaliw tayra i roma a kitakit.

I 1998 miheca satapng ko sakakinatos a lalood no Konko, matiya to o maronicay kona kitakit awa ko masongila’ay a sera, nawhani, marapotay ko 9 a kitakit no Afrika ato 20 a Cikowangay a Saopo, orasaka, pangangan han to “Hekalay Lalood no Afrika”,[1] I 2003 miheca ano matatilitiliday to

 
River Congo

a Kakaketonan, caay ka lasawad ko fodfod tona kitakit, nani 1998 miheca satapang kona lalood ira to ko 540 ofad ko mapatayay a tamdaw,[2] [3] ilaloma’ nona mapatayay i sahetoay o korira, mapiyas, fala’ a adada ato cahiwa ko sakapatay.[4]

Kaitiraan(地理)misinanot

Itiraay i saka’etip no sasifo’an Afrika ko kaitiraan no Kongko kitakit, mihifalat ko sifo’ay konis no cikiw isaka’amis nona kitakit,ikawali malafiyaw ato Ukanta, Roanta,Porongti, Tansangniya, isaka’amis malafiyaw ato Satimolan Sotan, Sifo’an Kapolongan kitakit, isaka’etip madado’edo ato Kongko Kapolongan Kitakit, isakatimol malafiyaw ato Ankola, Sanpiya. O Kongko ‘Alo nani kawali pasi’etip marakat kona kitakit. Ira ho ko Upan ‘Alo, Roalapa 'Alo.I sawalian kasalaed ira ko Aipoto Fanaw, Aitohwa Fanaw, Ciu Fanaw Tankanike Fanaw ato Muwiro Fanaw.

Tamdaw (人口)misinanot

I 2016 mihecaan a pisa’osi to tamdaw, ilaloma’ no Kongko ira ko 254 kokasasiromaroma a finacadan, o sakakaay i,o Panto Finacadan a Sowal ko saadihayay,

 
Mafraway tamdaw(DRC Rwanda line)

mahaop ko 84%, ilaloma’ no Panto Finacadan masasiiked ho to Kongko Tmdaw, EnkalaTamdaw, Ropa Tamdaw, Monko-Enkuto Tmdaw, Rongta Tamdaw ato Suku Tamdaw.O roma i,o Sutan ko sowal a Acanto Tamdaw ato Niloto ko sowal a Aruer Tamdaw ato Pikomi Tamdaw.

O no sifo a sowal i,o Fransu a sowal, o kalasasowal i, o Linkala sowal, Citopa sowal,Ciropa sowal ato Sewahili sowal. Ira ko 55% a tamdaw mitooray to Tinsikyo, Fa’elohay Misakristoay mahaop ko 35%, o roma a pitooran i,ira ho ko 10%.

sowal(語言)misinanot

O matenakay a sowal itini i Afrika i, o Sewahili a sowal, ono Panto a sowal ko nini, itini i Afrika o saalomanay ko somowalay tonini a sowal ira ko mata'elif ko 5500 ofad ko tamdaw, malalen ato Arapiya sowal ato Hawsa sowal o satata'angay a sowal itini i Afrika kona tolo a sowal. ona Sewahili a sowal i, ono sifo a asowal no Tansangniya, Kiniyam Ukanta. itini i Sangpiya , Malawi, Pulongti, Roanta, Mosanpiko o itiraay i sakawali Afrika ato Sasifo'an Afrika o sapisawidang a sowal konini. i 1728 miheca ona Sewahili a sowal ono Arapiya a tilid ko sapitilid, tahira to i saka19 sici marecep no Yoropa micowatay a tamdaw ko Sewahili a sowal, ono Latin a tilid ko sapi'osi, ora sato o Sewahili a sowal adihay ko mialaan nani Arapiya a sowal. patinako han ona Sewahili sananay i, o nani Arapiya سواحيل a tilid,o ililisay no riyar sanay ko imi nira.

Pacefafay a tilid(註腳)misinanot


[1] See "Rumblings of war in heart of Africa" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) by Abraham McLaughlin and Duncan Woodside The Christian Science Monitor 23 June 2004 and "World War Three" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) by Chris Bowers My Direct Democracy 24 July 2006

[2] Robinson, Simon. The deadliest war in the world. Time.com. 2006-05-28 [2010-05-02]. (原始內容存檔於2010-06-17).

[3] Bavier, Joe. Congo War driven crisis kills 45,000 a month. Reuters. 2008-01-22 [2010-05-02]. (原始內容存檔於2009-02-21).

[4] Report on the crisis (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Full report at IRC Mortality Facts (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) from the International Rescue Committee

O pi'arawan a tilid(參考文獻)misinanot

  1. CIAfactbook. [2012-02-22]. (原始內容存檔於2018-12-24)
  2. ^ Democratic Republic of the Congo (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) IMF population estimates
  3. ^ 10.0 10.1 "Zaire: Post-Independent Political Development" Archive.is的存檔,存檔日期2012-12-05, Library of Congress
  4. ^ 11.0 11.1 See "Rumblings of war in heart of Africa" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) by Abraham McLaughlin and Duncan Woodside The Christian Science Monitor 23 June 2004 and "World War Three" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) by Chris Bowers My Direct Democracy 24 July 2006
  5. ^ Report on the crisis (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Full report at IRC Mortality Facts (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) from the International Rescue Committee
  6. ^ 兩國1960年加入聯合國決議案,英語國名分別為The Republic of the Congo (Leopoldville)(Leopoldville為金沙薩舊名利奧波德維爾)和The Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville)。UN admission resolutions (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  7. ^ Report on the crisis (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Full report at IRC Mortality Facts (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) from the International Rescue Committee
  8. ^ 23.0 23.1 改寫自《非洲列國誌》--賴比瑞亞,頁223,1981年出版
  9. ^ 聯合國秘書長吁剛果(金)總統按約去職 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館).新華網.[2017-01-03].
  10. ^ 總統大選推遲引示威遊行 至少8人死亡、剛果政府宣布無限期關閉網路 (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館).匯流新聞網.[2018-01-02].
  11. ^ Elle「pouvait se prévaloir (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  12. ^ "DR Congo poll crucial for Africa (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)". BBC News. November 16, 2006.
  13. ^ Katanga Project Update and 2Q 2008 Financials, Katanga Mining Limited, 8/12/08. [2010-08-22]. (原始內容存檔於