Koroasiya(克羅埃西亞)misinanot

Takaray a sowal(概略)misinanot

 
o hata no Koroasiya (Flag of Croatia)

O Koroasiya Kapolongan Kitakit(克羅埃西亞共和國; Koroasiya a sowal:Republika Hrvatska)itiraay i kalala’edean katimol no sakawali no Yoropa, Sifo’ay-Riyar ato Parkan-Pecihkanatal, o Cecaay-Lomaocan a Kapolongan kitakit.o syoto ato sakakaay niyaro’ o Cakoroypo(札格瑞布; Koroasiya a sowal:Zagreb), itiraay I ka’amis no saka’etipan no Koroasiya Kapolongan Kitakit, i sakatimol ‘apilis no Mitowinica-Lotok, ira ko Sawa-’Alo mihifalat a romakat tona kitakit. I 2011 miheca a pisa’osi to tamdaw nona kitakit, Cakoroypo syoto ira ko 792,875 ko tamdaw.[1]o polong i,ira ko 1,110,517 ko tamdaw. o dengan koni ko cirafasay to cecay so’ot ko ofad ko tamdaw sakakaay Tokay.[2] itiya ho o mikapotay to Solin kona kitakit.Yo matekop ko Solin i 1990 miheca, liyas sanay to Solin a misiiked.

I 1094 miheca satapang sa ira i nitilidan ko ngangan no Kakoroypo, itira i sakowan no Kapotor-Sikyo Etal(卡普托爾; Koroasiya a sowal:Kaptol).i 1845 miheca malatapang no Kakoroypo ci Yanko-Kamaofu,ikor to sa’aloman sato ko tamdaw i 1945 miheca , sakakahad sato kona niyaro a tokay,

 
kaitiraan i Yoropa no Koroasiya (EU-Croatia)

orasaka, malasyoto no Koroasiya kona Cakorpo.Polong no sekalay a sera i 56,594 km² ,saka 127 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 55,974 km², no nanom a sekalay i, 620 km²

Ona Cakorpo a tokay pakitinien i kasasikiked a sakowan iraay ko pisiikedan nona tokay(Sakakaay Sifo Sakowan),i laloma’ masakilac ho to 17 a etal, sahetoay i la’enoay no nani tongroh no riyar a tata’eman no Sawa-‘Alo.(saowacan) O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Zoran Milanović, patirengan a romi’ad i 2020 a miheca(年) saka 2 folad saka 19 a romi’ad.

O kacacefelisan no lalan no ‘edef no Korosiya kitakit, Sa’etipay-Yoropa, Sifo’ay Riyar ato Katimol-Saka’etipay a Yoropa ko kaitiraan no Cakoroypo tokay, orasaka, nani tini ko Kalokitakit-Cinamalay, ira ko cinamalay i laloma’ nona tokay.o pitoooran nona kitakit sahetoay o tinsikyo.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakamoetep 8 a romi’ad.

Papikedan no Ngangan no kitakit(國名來源)misinanot

O sa’ayaway a mapahadakay to “Koroasiya” sanay i,itiraay i taliyok no “Polanimir-Nitilidan Sikipan”(布拉尼米爾碑文), matilid itini ko Sifo’ay-Sici a Latin-Tilid to mikowanay to “Koroasiya”a honti ci Polanir Kakita’an, talacowa away ho pakalaheciay a somowal to lo’elinay a mihecaan, nikawrira, kafana’ay to yo mikowan ci Polanir to Koroasiya itiraay i 879 miheca tahira i 892 mihecaan,[3]

O “Korasiya” hananay i,nani tilid no Selafo tora “Xrovat-” ona tilid tonini o nani to’asan ho a tilid no Selafo to “*Xъrvatъ”, “*xъrvatъ” ano ca “*Xŭrvatŭ” a ngiha’ ko ni alaan.[4]

O kasadakan nona sowal away to ko kafana’an,nikawrira, o nani sowal no Koto-Finacadan, oya malahedaway to a sowal no Rireman-Finacadan (日耳曼語族; Ikiris a sowal:Germanic languages),ano ca o capa’ a sowal no Indo-Yalian, matenak tara i Selafo-F inacadan a macaliw.[5] O sa’ayaway mitelekay tona pitahidang o matiliday i Paska-Sikipang Tilid a “Toerpimir-Koroasiya honti”(zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ) sanay a sowal.[6]

O sa’ayaway tono Latin a tilid to “Koroasiya” sanay a nitilidan i,itiyaay i 852 miheca to piahi ni Torpimir Kakita’an a nitilidan, oya padakopak(tatipelok)masidayay to, iraay ko mirorodan a tatipelok i 1568 miheca, nikawrira, ira ko caay ka pakaso’elin a tamdaw tonini a tatipelok.[7] O pipangangan a mihongyaku i,ono Taywan a sowal “Koroaysiya” (克羅埃西亞), ono Sinkapor ato Congko o “Korociya”(克羅地亞) hananay, ono Dipon i, malecad o “Korociya”(克羅地亞) hananay ko pangangan.[8]

Rikisi(歷史)misinanot

To’asan tahira i Sasifo’an Sici(古代到中世紀時期)misinanot

O aniniay a Koroasiya I’ayaway-Rikisi(’ayaw no kairaan no tilid a rikisi) iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ itini tona palapalaan. Isaka’amisan nona kitakit ira a makera Katelangay-Fokelohan

 
Patirengay to Koroasiya kitakit a honti ci Tomislafo(Kralj Tomislav na prijestolju)

(i’ayaw no 260~250 ’ofad ko mihecaan) a malafokelohay ‘okak a fongoh no Niantota-Tamdaw(尼安德塔人;學名:Homo neanderthalensis), o itiraay i Kolapina a makarkaray ko sakakaay.[9]

I’ayaw ni Yieso to saka8 sici,o to’asan a Kirisiya tamdaw pasira i Kahetingay-Riyar, Sifo’ay-Riyar ato lawac no Yatoliya-Riyar mipatireng to sakowan pala. I saka 9 mihecaan, malowid no Roma-Hontian Kitakit ko polong no Koroasiya, patireng to “Ililikumo Kowan”,o pikowan no Roma ira ko 500 miheca ko kahalafin.

I 395 miheca, macacinowas to kawaliay ato ka’etipay hontian kitakit,ona sa Koroasiya mapateko i Ka’etipay-Roma Hontian Kitakit. I 476 miheca matekop ko Ka’etipay-Roma Hontian Kitakit, o Koto-Tamdaw no Rirman-Finacadan ‘ecoen nangra koya no hontian a pala a patireng to Ka’etipay-Koto Hontian Kitakit, to ikor to i, ira ko cecay a cipa’ a finacadan maforaw a tayra i aniniay a Koroasiya, malatamdaw tono aniniay a Koroasiya.

Hapospaw Sakowan tahira I Awsiyong-Hontian mihecaan(哈布斯堡王政至奧匈帝國時期)misinanot

Tona kararid a pakalowid ko sofitay no Awsiyong-Hontian, o sifo no Awtili pecih han to mikalitosa ko Koroasiya, o ceceay a pecih ono finawlan, o cecay a pecih ono sofitay a etal, ocor han to ko tapang no sofitay a mikowan tonini a etal no sofitay, o kalotamdaw mapaini to kowang o sofitay to ko pisa’osi. a mipadang to sofitay no Awtili.Awsiyong-Hontian kitakit ci Falanci-Fitinan sawaraa’an ko mikeriday micoroh to So’elinay-Kapolongan Kitakit a harateng, ona sa Koroasiya o mamalacecay nona kapolongan kitakit, nikawrira, mapatay no cima a tamdaw, matatanga ho to Sakakinacecay-Lalood no hekal, oya nisaharatengan i,lahedaw sato.[10]

Sakacecay-Lalood no Hekal ato Nanslafu-Hontian Kitakit(第一次世界大戰與南斯拉夫王國)misinanot

 
Patirengay to Nanslafo a congtong ci Tito(Marshal Tito, the President of the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia)

Malingato ko Sakacecay-Lalood no Hekal i kaciferangan no 1914 miheca, Awsiyong-Hontian Kitakit papilooden ko 700 ’ofad a sofitay, ilaloma’ nonini i,ira ko 50 ‘ofad o  Koroasiya a tamdaw, milood i Sa’etipay-Kalaloodan(西線), Italiya, Parkan ato Sawaliay-Kalaloodan(東線).[11] Tona lolood ira ko 137,000 sofitay ko mapatayay, 109,000 ko kalotamdaw a mapatayay, oninian haw i,o makowangay, tahalofongay ato cahiw.[12] I 1918 miheca saka 10 folad saka 29 romi’ad, o kalomaocan no kitakit no Koroasiya milekal to misiiked nani Awsiyong-Hontian Kitakit, matateko ato Slofakiya tamdaw-Koroasiya tamdaw- ato Sayrwiya tamdaw a kitakit.[13]( 斯洛維尼亞人、克羅埃西亞人和塞爾維亞人國; Sayrwiya sowal: Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба,Roma atilid:Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba;Koroasiya a sowal: Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba; Slofakiya a sowal: Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov), to ikor to i,malaheci a patireng to Hontian-Kitakit no Slofakiya tamdaw,Koroasiya tamdaw, ato Sayrwiya tamdaw a kitakit.[14]

Misiikeday a Naslafo Kapolongan kitakit(南斯拉夫共和國至獨立)misinanot

Yo malepon ko Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal,o SiyakaySiyuki kapolongan kitakit sanay a tireng ko Koroasiya a mikapot heca to “ Nanslafo-Patatekoan Kapolongan Kitakit” , o “Kyosanto Kasafelaw no Koroasiya” ko mikowanay tona kitakit, misatekeday ko cecay a kasafelaw no sici, o kakomodan ci Tito. I 1980 miheca saka 5 folad saka 4 romi’ad mapatay ci Tito,milongoc ko Koroasiya to piliyaw a masafaco to fa’elohay a kitakit, nikawrira, mina’ay ko Sayrwiya, Montonikoro ato Maciton, liyas sato ko Koroasiya tona kapolongan kitakit.orasaka ira ko rawraw i laloma’ nona kitakit, i 1998 miheca saka 1 folad saka 15 romi’ad malaheci ko patateko a palacecay tona kitakit ko Nanslafo.[15]

Finacadan ato Pitooran(族群和信仰)misinanot

O pisa’osi i 2014 miheca saka 12 folad saka 31 romi’ad to tamdaw no Koroasiya ira ko 4,225,316 ko tamdaw,[16] o kacekcek no tamdaw 75 kotamdaw to kasacecay no km². I 2012 miheca o kalalen no kakakaya’ no mihecaan ira ko 75 ko mihecaan.[17] O sao’si i 2014 miheca cecay a wina dengan 1.46 ko nidipotan a wawa wawa, o sasafaay i polong no hekal a kitakit.[18]

O sakalowan no tamdaw i,sepat ko lalengatan:1.itira i ikor no kalaloodan to pisiiked ato lalood no hekal mapaceko’ ko ka’adihay no nisofocan a wawa, orasaka, ikor to i,macahefak ko kalowan; 2.to’edaw ko ‘orip; 3.masafeleng ko kapah miliayas to kitakit tayra I roma a kitakit;[19] 4.itiya pisiikedan a lalood ‘aloman ko maforaway a kalotamdaw.

O tamdaw no Koroasiya masasifod ko kasasiromaroma, o sa’osi no sakakaay citodongay mikirokay, o polong a tamdaw ira ko 90.4% o Koroasiya,[20] nenengnengen matiya o malacecay ko fanacadan, niawrira, o cowa ka ‘aloman ko tamdaw a finacadan ira ko Sayrwiya tamdaw(4.4%), o roma i,ira ho ko Posiniya, Syonyali, Itali, Slaofaniya, Toic, Cieko, Romaniya ato Arpaniya.[21]

O Koroasiya a tamdaw sahetoay o mitooray to Tinsikyo, ira ko 86.3%, o roma a pitooran o Saka'etipay So’elinay Kyokai ira ko 4.4%, orama a misakristoay 0.6%, Islam irako 1.5% ato 0.4% roma a pitooran, ato 6.7% o cowa ka pakaso’elin to kawas ato caay ko kafana’an sanay(不可知論; Agnosticism).

 
Nikotay (Necktie knot)

Ponka(文化)misinanot

O kaitiraan no Koroasiya macacamol to sepatay a masasiromaromaay a ponka, ira ko Paycanti-Hontian ato Sa’etipay-Roma Hontian, ato Sifo’ay Yoropa ato Sifo’ay-Riyar a ponka.[22] Isasifo’an no saka19 sici matenak ko “Ililiya-Demak”(伊利里亞運動,Illyrian movement;又稱克羅埃西亞國家復興 ,Croatian national revival), o tadakalimelaan a kacomahad no ponka konini a mihwcaan,caay ko sowal aca ko mapaloloay, o nisongila’an mapatenak, mapalowad ko papinapina a tadamaanay o midemakay to ponka a tamdaw.[23]

Yo itira ho i sasifo’an no saka17 sici, mipadama to Fransu a milood to ’ada, o riko’ no sofitay ira ko pengec i li’er, mahemek ko fafahiyan no Frasu a minengneng, orasaka, mapatenak icowacowa i hekal, o nikotay konini, saraw i,itira i sowak no Toic, Frasu ato Italia no “ Koroasiya” ano sa i, o nikotay sanay.[24] [25]Tada mahapinang ko pirecep no ponka no roma a finacadan to roma a finacadan.

Pacefaday Tilid(註腳)misinanot

[1] KONTINGENTI STANOVNIŠTVA PO GRADOVIMA/OPĆINAMA, POPIS 2011. [2014-04-19]. (原始內容存檔於2021-01-09).

[2] Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements - Enumerated persons, households and housing units (HTML). Statistical Reports (Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics). June 2011, (1441) [2011-12-30]. ISSN 1332-0297 (克羅埃西亞語及英語).

[3] (克羅埃西亞文)Ivan Mužić. Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća (PDF). Naklada Bošković. 2007 [2016-07-03]. ISBN 978-953-263-034-3. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-07-03).

[4] (克羅埃西亞文)Alemko Gluhak. Podrijetlo imena Hrvat. Zagreb: Jezik. 1990 [2016-07-03]. (原始內容存檔於2016-07-03).

[5] (英文)Marc L. Greenberg. The Role of Language in the Creation of Identity: Myths in Linguistics among the Peoples of the Former Yugoslavia (PDF). University of Kansas. 1996-04 [2016-07-03]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-07-03).

[6] (克羅埃西亞文)Branko Fučić. Najstariji hrvatski glagoljski natpisi. Slovo (Old Church Slavonic Institute). 1971-09, 21 [2016-07-03]. (原始內容存檔於2016-07-03).

[7] (克羅埃西亞文)Ivan Mužić. Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća (PDF). Naklada Bošković. 2007 [2016-07-03]. ISBN 978-953-263-034-3. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-07-03).

[8] 新字體寫作「克羅地亜」。

[9] (英文)Igor Salopek. Krapina Neanderthal Museum as a Well of Medical Information. Acta Medico-Historica Adriatica (Hrvatsko znanstveno društvo za povijest zdravstvene kulture). 2010-12, 8 (2) [2016-07-03]. ISSN 1334-4366. (原始內容存檔於2016-03-28).

[10] (德文)Max Polatschek. Franz Ferdinand: Europas verlorene Hoffnung. Amalthea. 1989. ISBN 978-3-85002-284-2.

[11] (克羅埃西亞文)Vladimir Huzjan. Raspuštanje Hrvatskog domobranstva nakon završetka Prvog svjetskog rata. Časopis za suvremenu povijest (Hrvatski institut za povijest). 2005, 37 (2).

[12] (克羅埃西亞文)Nenad Jovanović. Veliki rat za još veće prešućivanje. Novosti. 2011 [2016-07-05]. (原始內容存檔於2016-07-05).

[13] (克羅埃西亞文)Povijest saborovanja. Sabor. [2016-07-04]. (原始內容存檔於2016-07-04).

[14] (英文)Spencer Tucker; Priscilla Mary Roberts. World War I: encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. 2005. ISBN 978-1-85109-420-2.

[15] (中文)馬細譜. 南斯拉夫興亡. 社會科學文獻出版社. 2010. ISBN 978-7-5097-1140-8.

[16] (英文)The Policy of Immigration in Croatia. Croatian Bureau of Statistics. [2016-06-09]. (原始內容存檔於2017-07-05).

[17] (英文)WHO Life Expectancy at birth. World Health Organization. 2012 [2014-12-06]. (原始內容存檔於2014-12-06).

[18] (英文)Ostroški, Ljiljana (編). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 (PDF) 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2015-12 [2016-07-05]. ISSN 1333-3305. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-04-28).

[19] (中文)左婭. 克羅地亞. 北京: 社會科學文獻出版社. 2007. ISBN 9787802304529. 4.

[20] (英文)Ostroški, Ljiljana (編). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 (PDF) 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2015-12 [2016-07-05]. ISSN 1333-3305. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-04-28).

[21] (英文)Ostroški, Ljiljana (編). Statistički ljetopis Republike Hrvatske 2015 (PDF) 47. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2015-12 [2016-07-05]. ISSN 1333-3305. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2016-04-28).

[22] (英文)Culture and History. Croatian National Tourist Board. [2016-07-02]. (原始內容存檔於2011-10-16).

[23] (克羅埃西亞文)Nikša Stančić. Hrvatski narodni preporod – ciljevi i ostvarenja. Cris: časopis Povijesnog društva Križevci. 2009-02, 10 (1) [2016-07-03]. ISSN 1332-2567. (原始內容存檔於2016-07-03).

[24] (英文)Eric P. Nash. STYLE; Dressed to Kill. The New York Times. 1995-07-30 [2016-07-03]. (原始內容存檔於2012-11-09).

[25] (克羅埃西亞文)Vladimir Huzjan. Pokušaj otkrivanja nastanka i razvoja kravate kao riječi i odjevnoga predmeta. Povijesni prilozi (Hrčak Portal znanstvenih časopisa Republike Hrvatske). 2008-07, 34 (34) [2016-07-03]. ISSN 0351-9767. (原始內容存檔於2016-08-17).

Kakakitingan i Papotal(外部連接)misinanot