No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan

No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan 北極點misinanot

No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan, roma a sowal No’amisan ’Apocok (ikilis: North Pole), o pipangangan to fafa’eday no cikiw palapalaan a No’amisan ’Apocok, saka’amisay kaitiraan horac no cikiw, o karomakat maliyon ko cikiw no ka’amisay ato horac a kalalitemohan. O milonokay maliyol a No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan etal o No’amisan ’Apocok liyol. I palapalaan no No’amisan ’Apocok (o No’amisan ’Apocok ahan) a pisaheci matodongay: o milonokay maliyol no cikiw ato horac no No’amisan ’Apocok masapeno (roma a peno Notimolan ’Apocok, inian ko No’amisan ’Apocok ko sowal), itini tina cikiw a No’amisan ’Apoco o ka’amis no 90°, o ka’amis to todong, o katimol to nitoro’an. Notimolan ’Apocok o notimolan ’apocok karopaw a pala, No’amisan ’Apocok no ka’amisay i laloma’ay no ki^etecay a riyar. Awaay ko sera no No’amisan ’Apocok, dengan o ki^etecay a riyar a mararid a dademakay kifetolay a so^eda, orasaka caay ka lecad matiya o Notimolan ’Apocok, mida’oc mapatireng i No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan.

Nika o Sulien ato aniniay Erose nai 1937 mihecaan patireng to mapawpaway a pikacawan, ira ko midataay to No’amisan ’Apocok. Nai 2002 mihecaan Erose mingata to No’amisan ’Apoco a pala patireng to cecay pikacawan a Barne, o sakicanglahan to mihecahecaan to dademaken. I 2000 miheca ira ko pakayniay i No’amisan ’Apocok a pikingkiw, makingkiw to kafafalifalic no romi’ad no No’amisan ’Apocok, o mamalaso’or ko so^eda no No’amisan ’Apocok, latek itira toya romi’ad i 2016 miheca[1][2] tangasa rikor no 21 sici halo mataloc. Erose 2007 miheca a Arktika 2007 a demak pakayni i He-pin-haw mico’enepay tamina malalat ko talolong no No’amisan ’Apocok riyar, 4,261 mi (13,980 inci) [3], i 1958 mihecaan no Amilika a Ingwulo haw a heneng-pakalalinikay cifar milalatay to, o talolong 4,087 mi (13,410 ft)[4][5].

Mingataay to No’amisan ’Apocok a sekal i o ka’amis no Kelinlan a Kafikepen a kanatal, kararaay to No’amisan ’Apoco 700 km(430 mi). Mingataay to No’amisan ’Apocok, ira ko maro’ay a tamdaw no Kanata a Nonate Kicikotalo pala a Alete, Mingataay to No’amisan ’Apoco 817 km(508 mi).

Tadasowal a pasetek 精確定義misinanot

Halafinay, paso’elin ko tamdaw o milonokay maliyol dadecdec no cikiw ato caay kafalic kaitiraan no No’amisan ’Apocok, tangasa i 18 sici ira ko misa’osi mafanay ci Layanghate Ola kakenaan onini a dadecdec o mamangoyangoy to amahay. Latek i 20 sici, mikingkiway to kakarayan misa’imeray to, ano nai cikiw paketingan a misa’imer to da’ocay fo’is, masapinang masiyol ko konis no cikiw. Matiniay a kasiyol latek o malinahay no ’Apocok, nikawrira o cecayay a laya’, o pinapina a lipay ato o caayay kasarikec a kasiyol. Latek 435 romi’adan ko ko kasiyol to nidadecdecan ni Ola 8 folad, anini pakaci Cintele siyol ahan. Matiniay a kasiyol papipasetek to 1 ” a patiri’, midotoc to milonokay maliyol a dadecdec pasetek i No’amisan ’Apocok caay ka tatodong.

O kamaro’an no cikiw (no wali ka’etip toris, no timol ka’amis toris ato tongroh no riyar) ato makowatay a mapaketing sera, atalimay, malanah ko pala ato macelal ato kaperax, pasifa’ed maserer ko sera, o polong no palapala awaay ko maketingay a faco. Anini, kalokitakit a cikiw to milonokay maliyol ato piarawan ato kalokitakit kakarayan misa’imeray malalikowatay malakapot misetek to kasakitakit a no sera a piarawan faco malosakanga’ay a cacekeran, mido’edo misetek to makidefetay a sapilalat tonini faco no palapala i No’amisan ’Apocok, mihapiw to milonokay maliyol a dadecdecan ko kasiyol.

Misahinahinamay i No’amisan ’Apocok 北極探險史misinanot

’Ayaw no 1900 mihecaanmisinanot

’Ayaw i 16 sici, aloman ko tadamaanay tamdaw nasa, o dadahalay riyar ko No’amisan ’Apocok, i 19 sici o sowal no tamdaw nano ki’etecay fanaw ato macelakay a ’Apocok a riyar. Orasaka nanay mata’elif i cecay miheca matama ko mapawpaway so^eda a romi’ad kinapinapina a malikid matama kodemak, milepelay to ’iso a cifar kai sa’amisan si’enaway a kanatal.

1900-1940 mihecamisinanot

Misahinahinamay no Amilika ci Foritelike Koke sacisowal sa i 1908 miheca tangasa i No’amisan ’Apocok [7]. Ropote Pili pasowal i 1909 miheca tangasa i No’amisan ’Apocok[8], nikawrira nawhani sapilalat tomolacay, caay ka sapinang o tahiraay cangra hanima i No’amisan ’Apocok.

Saka cecay a masapinangay, i kakak a paso’elinen a mihinamay i No’amisan ’Apocok nai 1926 miheca 5 folad 12 romi’ad, nai Nowiy a mihinamay ci Rolte Amonsen ato Amilika micokeray tamdaw ci Linken Aielswos ko midemakay, itiya o ma’eferay cifar Norge ko sakadademak[9], ma’eferay a tamina o no Nowiy sifo, nikawrira o Italiya a patolocay ci Umberto Nobile ko misafacoay ato parakatay. O rakat nai Nowiy a Sewapa kanatal milacal to No’amisan ’Apocok tangasa i Alaska, itiya aloman ko kakak fana’ay ato matayalay tamdaw, ikor i 1928 miheca parakat to ma’eferay cifar sakinatosa pa’olid to No’amisan ’Apocok, nika i pipatikoan matefad, mapatay ko malitosaay tamdaw.

1940 miheca – 21 sicimisinanot

Pakacifar ko tamdaw a milifet tayra i No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan a matilid, nai 20 sici misatapang, nikawrira kinapinapina milifet macenon, itiya no Sulien a mi’ariay to so^eda cifar nawhani matayo ko rakat madapong no so^eda, maleneng, pinapina romi’ad matama no parakatay to hikoki mapa’orip ko icifaray. Naikoran no saka 2 lalood alamidemak sa to heneng, adihay to ko pisanga’ to tadamaanay cifar madado’edo a tayra, milifet to sapilaheciaw to nidemaka i No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan, onini malasakalalifelifetan no Amilika ato Elose, i 1958 miheca, o Amilika pakayni i Ingwulo haw a heneng-pakalalinikay milakec to No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan, ikor Syipanhaw a heneng-pakalalinikay o sarakatay talahekal i No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan a ifar. O so’elinay pakafaleday romakat a cifar a tangasa i No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan, ono Sulien a heneng-mi’ariay to so^eda cifar milaheciay, nanoya malowiday to no tamdaw ko No’amisan ’Apocok kaitiraan.

Romi’ad ato dadaya 白天和黑夜misinanot

O No’amisan ’Apocok i kaciherangan i, salalad sa i fafa’ed kacacofelisan no calay no sera, o ’Apocok no romi’ad ahan, felihen i, i kasi’enawan salalad sa i la’eno no kacacofelisan no calay no sera, o Apocok no dadaya ahan. O kasadak no cidal i No’amisan ’Apocok i canglahan (i 3 falad 20 romi’ad), ikor 3 folad ko romi’ad, i kaciherangan (i 6 folad 21 romi’ad) ko satakaraway, tali’angay 23½°, ikor miteka to a patefo, katefoan i falawfawan (i 9 folad 23 romi’ad). Tona pakanengneng ko No’amisan ’Apocok to cidal i, o lilu no cidal matiya o cecay ato miladacay to saseraan a ’arawraway. ’arawraway satapang miingir to calay no sera, rara: sa a macakat, tangasa i kaciherangan i takaraway, itiya rara: sa a malikelon, ikor no kafarawfawan awaay to manengneng. ’ayaw no kasadak no cidal ato picelem to no cidal, nano fali a mapiked ko tedi no likat i sera o makakeremay a likat ahan. Makakeremay a likat i No’amisan ’Apocok i ’ayaw no kasadak no cidal ato ikor no picelem no cidal to 7 a lipay. Oni a nisowalan nawhani o kaliyol no cikiw a maselic ato mitaliyok to cidal maliyol. O kaselic no cikiw maliyol miming ko kafalic. i ’amisay a kaciherangan No’amisan ’Apocok misi’ayaw to cidal. Itiya rara: sa a misorikor to cidal, tangasa i kasi’enawan miliyas to cidal a miraay. Notimolan ’Apocok malecadayto, dengan 6 folad ko kalala’ed.

Romi’ad 時間misinanot

Kasaetal no cikiw, o Cinto ko miketonay to romi’ad no kasaetal ato romi’adan, nawhani o romi’ad ato kamaro’an no cidal malalenay (matiya kalahokan a cidal o satakaraway kamaro’an). Naka No’amisan ’Apocok to cecay mihaca kinacecay masadak ko cidal, kinacecay micelem ko cidal, nika polong no malocalay i No’amisan ’Apocok malalitemoh, caay kacitodong to no’ayaway a sarike. Awaay ko maketingay a maro’ay tamdaw i No’amisan ’Apocok, awaay ko maketingay a romi’ad no pala. Mihinamay manga’ay i kaicowa no etal dademak, tinako Kelinwiyce salingan a romi’ad ato kalomowadan a pala a kadademakan.

Kasafalifalic no romi’ad 氣候misinanot

Nawhani o fafa’ed no riyar i No’amisan ’Apocok, o maliyokay no riyar, caay ka matiya o Notimolan ’Apocok ko takaraway a palapala, orasaka No’amisan ’Apocok a hemhem ikaka to no Notimolan ’Apocok ko takaraw. No’amisan ’Apocok a kasi’enawan (saka 1 folad) a hemhem −43 °C (−45°F) tangasa −26 °C (−15°F). kaciherangan (saka 6 tangasa 8 folad) a hemhem malalen ko ki^etec, matilid satakaraway a hemhem 5 °C (41°F), ikaka no Notimolan ’Apocok ko takaraw no hemhem to −12.3 °C (9.9°F) [10].

Notimolan ’Apocok a so^eda no riyar ira ko 2-3 mi (6 ft 7 in tangasa 9 ft 10 in ) kakifetol[11], nika o kifetol, kaingala’ kasayra, ato macelak ko rakat no nanom mafecak mido’edo to romi’ami’ad ato romi’ad a kafafalifalic[12]. O pikingkiw paini to pinapina miheca mapawpaway so^eda makakerekerem tokihepic[13], letek mapakangiro ko cikiw, nika anini mahapinang mangalef sa ko ki^etecay a kihepic, caayto patepi’ ahan mapakangiro ko No’amisan ’Apocok[14]. O pikingkiw to pinapina a mo^etep ko mihacaan i kaciherangan ko No’amisan ’Apocok o aawa to ko so^eda[15].

Malowan ko No’amisan ’Apocok a ki^etec no riyar, nika’eceng no cidal a so^eda o mamalowan, mangalef ranikay to a ciherangan ko cikiw, ranikay a masa’ariyotay ko ’Apocokay a sera, caay to kanga’ay ko kafafalifalic no romi’ad[16].

O ’a’adopen pinalengaw 動植物misinanot

O tomay no No’amisan ’Apocok awaay a mirakarak i takaraway a wiyto i peiwiy 82° a pala, sakaawaay ko kaka’enen, nika i ngata no No’amisan ’Apocok matama ko naripa’an No’amisan ’Apocok a tomay, 2006 miheca o misahinahinamay kapot pakanengneng ira ko No’amisan ’Apocok a tomay masadak i ngata no No’amisan ’Apocok to 1 in (1.6 kongli) a kaitiraan[17][18]. I No’amisan ’Apocok ira masadak ko cifolatakay a lokedaw no riyar, nai la’ed no 89°40’ N caay ka tangasa 60 kongli (37 in) ko ray manengneng ko ngarap no No’amisan ’Apocok[19][20].

Ira i No’amisan ’Apocok ato i ngata matama ko ma’eferay ’ayam itira, halo syiwu, pawsyihu ato sacewu, nika ma’eferay ’ayam mikotod to cifar ato misahinahinamay kapot, mahinamay latek caay ko no ma’eferay ’ayam a kadademakan itira[21]. I No’amisan ’Apocok a nanom mtama ko fotifoting, nika caay ka adihay[21]. O cecay a mihinamay no Erose i 2007 miheca 8 folad maepod i dahetal no No’amisan ’Apocok, sacisowal sa awaay ko ma’oripay kahirahira saan[22][23]. Nika ikor mihinamay no Erose matama ko damay i dahetal, micelem a misyasing matama ko romaroma a ’afar ato ma’oripay[24].

Manengnengay a kaoratan 常見誤解misinanot

I No’amisan ’Apocok ato Notimolan ’Apocok karopaw saheto o ’Apocok a pala, nika o No’amisan ’Apocok dengan o ka’amis no Kanata ato Erose, saheto to so^eda ki’etecay, awaay ko tadapala, nika no Notimolan ’Apocok karopaw laenoay no so^eda saheto o palapalaanko iraay.

Pienengan a tilid 參考文獻misinanot

1.Richard Black (2001-04-08). New warning on Arctic sea ice melt (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). BBC

2.David Ljunggren (2009-03-05). Arctic summer ice could vanish by 2013: expert (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Reuters

3.Russian sub plants flag at North Pole (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), Reuters, Aug 2, 2007

4.Андерсон, Уильям Роберт. "Наутилус" у Северного полюса. Воениздат. 1965 [2012-01-12]. (原始內容存檔於2013-05-02).

5.Mouton, M.W. The International Regime of the Polar Regions. Hague Academy of International Law. 1968: 202 (34) [2012-01-12]. (原始內容存檔於2013-06-03).

6.John K. Wright Geographical Review, Vol. 43, No. 3. (Jul., 1953), pp. 338–365 "The Open Polar Sea"

7.Robert Bryce Cook and Peary: the Polar Controversy Resolved Stackpole 1997; Henderson, B. (2005) True North W W Norton & Company ISBN 978-0-393-32738-0

78.1909年4月6日 人类首次徒步到达北极. [2014年11月5日]. (原始內容存檔於2016年3月4日).

9.Tierney, John. (2009-09-07) Who Was First at the North Pole? (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館). Tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-04.

10."Antarctic Sun: Heat Wave" Archived 2013-06-16 at WebCite, US Antarctic Program

Beyond "Polar Express": Fast Facts on the Real North Pole Archived 2012-02-03 at WebCite, National Geographic News

11.Sea Ice. Sate of the Cryosphere. NSIDC. [6 March 2012]. (原始內容存檔於2014-11-05).

12."Arctic ice thickness drops by up to 19 per cent" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), Daily Telegraph (2008-10-28).

13.Model-Based Estimates of Change. IPCC. [6 March 2012]. (原始內容存檔於2012-01-13).

14.Jonathan Amos (2006-12-12). Arctic sea ice "faces rapid melt" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), BBC.

15.Future of Arctic Climate and Global Impacts. NOAA. [6 March 2012]. (原始內容存檔於2013-09-09).

16.Polar Bear – Population & Distribution (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), WWF, January 2007

17.Explorers' Blog (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), Greenpeace Project Thin Ice (2006-07-01).

18.Antti Halkka (February 2003). Ringed seal makes its home on the ice. suomenluonto.fi

The Arctic Fox (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), Magnus Tannerfeldt

19.FARTHEST NORTH POLAR BEAR (Ursus maritimus) (PDF). [2011-02-16]. (原始內容存檔 (PDF)於2012-02-03).

20.Russia plants flag under N Pole (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), BBC News (2007-08-02).

21.(俄文) News video of the Russian descent at the North Pole (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)

22."North Pole sea anemone named most northerly species" (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), Observer, 2 August 2009